Healthcare Facilities in Uttar Pradesh
Many states in India are bracketed as ‘low income’ states where the average income of a family is far below the national average according to compiled statistics where some states especially the southern ones rank higher because of a higher percentage of literate population and higher earning capacity. Some health analysts believe that this directly reflects on the state government’s efforts, initiatives and policy directions in the medical and healthcare sphere.
Like all state governments, the Uttar Pradesh government has also committed to providing easily accessible and affordable healthcare that is quality-oriented and comprehensive to the people of its state. Unfortunately, on the national scale, the state ranks at the bottom in medical infrastructure and reach to the people and has been classified as ‘backward’ in meeting the healthcare demands of the people.
Till the last couple of decades, the existing medical facilities and healthcare infrastructure proved to be largely inadequate; the problem is even more acute in the rural pockets where people are primarily dependent on government and primary health centres to seek medical and emergency services. The issues are compounded by two main factors – non-availability of medical staff and total lack of advanced medical equipment to treat emergency and complicated surgical procedures. Cases of unauthorized and ill-trained medical personnel conducting surgical procedures and taking advantage of the largely illiterate population is also a menace that seriously dogs the government’s healthcare initiatives.
The new concept
To meet the challenges of fighting communicable and non-communicable diseases, malnutrition, child care and maternity services, etc. the Uttar Pradesh government is initiating a “Public-Private Partnership” (PPP) model whereby a cluster that will link the existing infrastructure like district hospitals, community and primary health centres as well as sub-centres will be formed; this cluster will be overseen by a private partner.
It’s a proven fact that private agencies have better infrastructure and staff that can enhance the efficiency of medical care providers; the capital outlays they can provide for infrastructure and facilities upgrade along with their expertise in management and operational affairs is a double-edged advantage that has far-reaching beneficial consequences. Directorate of Medical and Health
Govt of Uttar Pradesh
Swasthaya Bhavan, Kaiserbagh
Lucknow - 226001
Tel: (91) 522 2622625
Fax: (91) 522 2623980Directorate of Medical Education and Training
6th Floor, Jawahar Bhawan,
Ashok Marg, Lucknow
Tel: (91) 522 2287653
Fax: (91) 522 2288193
Healthcare Bodies in Uttar Pradesh
The state of Uttar Pradesh is geographically vast and occupies a great portion of the northern part of the country. With changes taking place and considerable investments having been made in the healthcare infrastructure of the state in the last couple of decades, there is significant improvement in the public and private healthcare sectors.
The state government runs government medical colleges at Agra, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Jhansi, Kanpur and Meerut besides a medical university as well as a super-specialty hospital at Lucknow; plans are afoot to develop four more super-specialty hospitals in various locations.
The state’s combined distribution of healthcare bodies is seen as:
- Nearly 60 District Hospitals
- Over 20 combined hospitals
- Around 850 Public Health Centres
- 2850 additional Public Health Centres
- Around 21000 sub Public Health Centres
However, the numbers may not do full justice to meet the demands of the vast population.
In the private sector, there are five private medical colleges and hospitals, twenty dental colleges besides a vast network of over 4750 nursing homes.
Other hospitals providing methods of alternative treatment and healing techniques such as Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Unani number around 3000 all together.
Some of the well known hospitals in the state are:
- Agra Medical College
- Allahabad Medical College
- Charan Singh Medical University, Meerut
- Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow
- Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh
- Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow
- Aligarh Ayurvedic and Unani Medical College and Hospital
- King George Medical & Dental College, Lucknow
- Institute of Medical Sciences, Benaras Hindu University, Benaras
- Hindustan Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Noida
- Maharani Laxmi Bai Medical College
- Muzaffarnagar Medical College
- Hind Institute of Medical Sciences, Barabanki
Almost half of the districts in Uttar Pradesh are covered by Public-Private Partnership (PPP) programs implemented by non-profit organizations supported ably by state agencies and USAID. These projects are based on the social franchisee method, the aim being to create sustainable PPP models that can reach out to the marginalized populations through a network of franchised hospitals that offer quality medical services across all areas.
The structure of these networks comprises of a ‘hub’ and ‘spoke’ referral system that begins at the village level and goes all the way up to district level. The key strategies that are evolved include:
complementing public health system by leveraging existing private healthcare service infrastructure
using an innovative and integrated approach in service providing – use of ICT to increase system efficiency
- Standardize services by ensuring uniformity in operational procedures and clinical protocols across the franchise
- Conduct regular capacity team-building sessions and medical audits to ensure Quality Assurance
- Affordable service framework especially for maternal health and child care services
- Educating the public on the need and choices for family planning
- Ensuring backend linkages with government healthcare schemes
- This service model has proved to be financially sustainable and therefore the potential for scalability especially for low-cost and resource public health care systems is very high.
Healthcare Schemes in Uttar Pradesh
The Department of Medical, Health and Family Welfare of the state government was set up in 1921 and through its ‘Provincial Medical and Health Services’ it has been responsible for provided related services to even the remotest rural areas in the densely populated state.
The National Rural Health Mission’s health and welfare schemes aim to:
- Comprehensively improve quality of life and health of the rural population that has hitherto had no access to medical care,
- Create explicit emphasis on medical measures that can promote sustainable development,
- Reduce maternal and infant mortality rates,
- Stabilization of population across the state,
- Prevent and control the spread of communicable and non-communicable diseases
- Upgrade existing medical centres to provide holistic and well-rounded medical care
The 2012 Census revealed that of the 20-crore people living in Uttar Pradesh nearly 8.5 crores were children of the 2-8 age group who were suffering from malnutrition. This section of population is the focus of a new health care initiative launched by the state government under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). Devised as a three-pronged programme, this scheme will provide diagnosis and treatment of illnesses and regular health check-ups.
The State Agency for Comprehensive Health Insurance (SACHI) is another initiative aimed to provide insurance to the poor people at affordable rates through co-ordination between the hospitals and the insurance companies.
Effective medical care in meeting emergency needs and requirements of the people, including maternal healthcare and child care services are at the core of many programs run in government hospitals in the state. The government is also actively encouraging public-private partnership models in all segments of healthcare so that infrastructure and facilities can be shared and distributed to the poor and needy that otherwise have to seek expensive treatment at private hospitals.
Uttar Pradesh is among the states that offer enrolment in community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes. These are offered through local women’s self-help groups (SHGs). The socio-economic status of an average household in Uttar Pradesh is below par compared to other progressive states in India; however, a majority of such households opt for an insurance scheme to cover healthcare costs in emergencies. The response to such schemes indicates that there is more scope for such initiatives besides the CBHI and the national insurance health scheme, the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana. With the success and awareness of women increasing through SHGs, there is more likelihood of larger number of families opting for one or the other insurance schemes depending on individual choices and needs.
Blood Banks in Uttar Pradesh
There are around 230 Blood Banks all over the state with every district being served by government, private, voluntary and charitable Blood Banks
. These Blood Banks are spread over the districts of Agra, Allahabad, Aligarh, Azamgarh, Baghpat, Balrampur, Barabanki, Bareilly, Basti, Bulandshahr, Deoria, Chitrakoot, Farukkhabad, Etawah, Faizabad, Etah, Fatehpur, Ferozabad, Gautama Buddha Nagar, Ghaziabad, Gorakhpur, Jaunpur, Kanpur Nagar, Moradabad, Kannauj, Jhansi, Kushinagar, Lucknow, Meerut, Mathura, Muzaffarnagar, Raeb
areli, Pilibhit, Saharanpur, Shahjahanpur, Sitapur, Sultanpur, Varanasi and Unnao respectively.
Ambulance Services in Uttar Pradesh
These services have been brought into effect by roping in private healthcare service providers. Mobile Medical Units, Neo Natal Ambulances and Boat Ambulances are new concepts that are enabling quicker reach of emergency medical services to places which are inaccessible.
Veterinary Services in Uttar Pradesh
The Animal Husbandry Department of the state government is a well organized and efficient service provider catering to the maintenance and health of poultry, livestock, farm animals and many others.
24-hour Chemists in Uttar Pradesh
The Uttar Pradesh Chemists and Distributors Association is an active body in the state collectively responsible for bringing the concerns of the chemists and traders to the attention of the appropriate authorities. The number of 24-hour chemists
and druggists across the state is hard to estimate; suffice to say that every major town, city and rural area is adequately provided with medical stores some of which operate on a 24-hour basis.